1 Data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for the period 1994-96.
2 NCAA Guideline 2i, Concussion or Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) in the Athlete, June 1994, Revised July 2004, 2009, July 2010, July 2011.
4 Data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for the period 1994-96
5 Boston University CTE Center – FAQ. http://www.bu.edu/cte/about/frequently-asked-questions/
7 Guskiewicz, et al., Recurrent concussions and risk of depression in retired professional football players, MED. SCI. SPORTS EXERC., Vol. 39, June 2007, at 903.
8 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/article/high-school-football-players-face-bigger-concussion-risk/; http://www.nap.edu/read/18377/chapter/5#ch83
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Athletes: Progressive Tauopathy following Repetitive Head Injury, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 2009 July; 68(7).
11 AAN Statement at 581 (recognizing cumulative damage of multiple concussions); Handbook CTE Study ¶ 37, at 53 (“There are potentially serious complications of multiple or severe concussions, including second impact syndrome, postconcussive syndrome, or post-traumatic encephalopathy”); see also Sean Gregory, Study: Kids Competing Too Soon After Concussions, TIME (Jan. 21, 2009), http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0.9171.
12 Guskiewicz, et al., Association between recurrent concussions and late-life cognitive impairment in retired professional football players, NEUROSURGERY, Vol. 50, October 2005.
13 Bey, et al., Second Impact Syndrome, West Journal of Emergency Medicaine, February 2009; http://abcnews.go.com/Health/impact-syndrome-high-school-football-player-normal-ct/story?id=18102534
15 Guskiewicz, et al., Cumulative Effects Associated With Recurrent Concussion in Collegiate Football Players, The NCAA Concussion Study, THE JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, Vol. 290, No. 19, November 19, 2003, at 2549.